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This process, called sputtering, separates neutral, as well as positive and negative ions from the sample surface.

The sample is held at a negative potential, and negatively charged ions are accelerated away from the sample, resulting in a beam of negative ions (Figure 2, below). The low energy (~5-10 ke V) diverging beam that leaves the ion source is accelerated, focused and transported to the accelerator by the injector system. Most AMS systems use sequential injection, a process that switches between stable and rare isotopes via the application of varying voltages to the electrically insulated vacuum chamber of the analyzer magnet.

Stripping is the process in which two or more electrons are removed.

The Van de Graaff accelerator removes at least four electrons.

Magnetic lenses focus the high energy particles leaving the accelerator into a magnetic dipole, (the high energy analyzing magnet).

Transmission through a foil changes with time due to radiation damage and foil thickening, thus gas strippers are used in all modern analyzers due to their increased transmission stability.

Modern methods in mass spectrometry, far advanced since their development in the 1970s, now enable carbon dating to be applied to a wide range of new problems.

Katherine Freeman, distinguished professor of geosciences at Penn State, uses it to follow crude oil compounds released from the 2010 Deepwater Horizon oil spill that were taken up by microbes living in sediments of the Gulf of Mexico.

AMS is a highly sensitive method for isotopic analysis that has numerous key applications that are only growing with advances in technology.

High costs and technical complexities that arise with the use of a particle accelerator are the only limits to the widespread use of AMS.