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Many more are embroiled in corruption investigations.

An increasingly powerful, secretive Chinese Communist Party (CCP or “the Party”) body – the Central Commission on Discipline Inspection (CCDI) – has been a central player in the campaign, particularly through its abusive shuanggui () disciplinary system.

Judges typically refuse to examine any documentary evidence, including paperwork and any video recordings of shuanggui interrogations; nor is this material available to the shuanggui detainees or their legal representatives.

Even though Chinese law requires that evidence obtained through torture be excluded during criminal investigations, we are not aware of any case in which a court acquitted a suspect or overturned a conviction due to misconduct by investigators that occurred during shuanggui.

three to five days” and “answer everything you ask,” according to Li Peng, who identified himself as a CDI officer.

It is telling that Party rules require that shuanggui facilities be designed to prevent those detained from committing suicide. The CCDI headquarters in Beijing is not marked except for its street address.

International human rights law obligates governments to protect the rights of individuals to liberty and security of the person.Former shuanggui detainees told Human Rights Watch that they were subjected to torture and other ill-treatment including beatings, prolonged sleep deprivation, and being forced to stand or maintain uncomfortable positions for hours or even days.The indefinite isolation of shuanggui – which itself can amount to torture – causes detainees’ minds to “collapse after…The shuanggui system, which functions beyond the reach of China’s criminal justice system, gives the CCDI the authority to summon any of the Communist Party’s 88 million members to account for allegedly ill-gotten gains at a “designated location at a designated time.” Those summoned are deprived of liberty for days, weeks, or months, during which time they are repeatedly interrogated and often tortured.Typically, shuanggui detention ends when the official confesses to corruption or other alleged disciplinary violations; some are then transferred to the regular criminal justice system for prosecution. the rule of law to fight corruption, [and] to strengthen national anti-corruption legislation.